National Literacy Trust (NLT) figures show that one in 15 students aged eight to 18 do not own a book.
This rises to one in 10 children from disadvantaged backgrounds, a figure that has gotten worse since last year (when it was one in 11).
Furthermore, one in three children on free school meals have fewer than 10 books at home, compared to one in five of their peers.
The charity has launched a Christmas appeal to raise funds to get books into the hands of children who need them most and to raise literacy levels in the poorest communities.
The research covers England, Scotland and Wales and involved more than 62,000 children and young people.
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