There is a “vicious cycle” between low Ofsted grades, increasingly deprived pupil intakes and increased staff turnover, researchers have found.

Fewer children then enrol, leading these schools to become undersubscribed, making funding more challenging and making it harder to attract staff.

A report into the plight of England’s 580 “stuck schools” has sought to identify reasons for consistent underperformance and potential solutions for these institutions.

The research, which has been funded by the Nuffield Foundation, classifies a stuck school as one that consistently received a less than good overall effectiveness inspection grade between 2005 and 2018 and for a minimum of three inspections.

The report identifies a combination of “unusually challenging circumstances” facing these schools including high teacher turnover, high pupil mobility, more disadvantaged pupils, being located in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, and higher levels of SEND.

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